Monkeypox: New Emergency for Public Health

What is Monkeypox?


Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease, which is a rare viral disease caused by the monkeypox virus. Just because it is a zoonotic disease it can be transmitted from animal to human and human to the animal as well. Monkeypox is mainly found in monkeys, rats, and squirrels. Here we show some monkeypox pictures to show the emergency of public health.

History of Monkeypox

Monkeypox was firstly found in 1958 in a monkey, after this in 1970 it is again found in 10 African Countries. In 2003 the first case of monkeypox is found in America. The biggest outbreak of monkeypox is found in Nigeria in 2017 and in 2018 it is firstly found in Britain. Recently we found some cases of monkeypox in India.


Causes of Monkeypox

Monkeypox virus belongs to the variola virus family which is also the family of the smallpox virus. Both monkeypox and smallpox have similar symptoms but monkeypox has some milder than smallpox, and monkeypox is rarely fatal than smallpox. One more thing is very important monkeypox is not related to chickenpox.



Symptoms of monkeypox

After exposure to monkeypox, you may have normal flu-like symptoms. There are some monkeypox symptoms given below:

  • High-Grade Fever
  • Body ache
  • Headache
  • Muscle aches
  • Backache
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Chills
  • Rashes
  • Exhaustion
  • Weakness
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Pathogenesis of Monkeypox

After exposure to the monkeypox virus, some rash may be developed on the skin. Rashes may be flat, and red in color and they can be painful as well. Later on, these rashes converted into blisters, which fill with yellowish pus. Whenever these blisters rupture and pus may be spread with or without pain. There are some sores that may be present in the mouth, vagina, and anus.



How Monkeypox Spread?

Whenever you will contact the infected animal or an infected person there is a risk of monkeypox spread. You can also be infected by monkeypox via contaminated clothes, beds, or things that can be used by infected persons or animals.

  • From an animal to a person the viral transmission occurs via bite or scratches, or direct contact with the animal’s blood, body fluids, and pus discharges.
  • From a person to another person it can spread via sores, pus discharge, respiratory droplets, sexual contact, and other body fluids.


How to diagnose monkeypox?

Monkeypox is a rare viral infection so everyone thinks that the rashes may be of measles, chickenpox, or smallpox but you can find the characteristic symptoms of the swollen lymph nodes that are only found in monkeypox.

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The main pathology test is PCR (polymerase chain reaction) which can be tested by infection tissue of wound and pus discharge. Another pathology test is done with blood for monkeypox antibodies to check the immune system of the body.


Treatment of Monkeypoxmonkeypox

Monkeypox is a viral disease and it is usually a self-limited disease that shows symptoms from two to four weeks. Mostly an infected person from monkeypox gets relief himself without any treatment. Currently, there is no specific treatment present but some antiviral drugs may be helpful in this infection. Also, we can use some antibiotics to prevent secondary bacterial infection.


How to prevent monkeypox?

A study says that the smallpox vaccine may provide some protection against monkeypox. Prevention depends upon person to person and their situation of viral load. Recently increase in monkeypox cases is one of the biggest issues for public health. There is some important point to preventing from monkeypox virus:

  • Avoid contact with infected animals, especially monkeys and rats
  • Avoid contact with the infected person
  • Eat fully-cooked food like animal meat
  • Frequently wash your hand with Soap or Sanitise from sanitizer
  • Use a mask that covers the nose and mouth
  • Use condoms during sexual contact
  • Use a PPE kit if you will go near infected people
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Monkeypox in India

In India, there are four cases of the monkeypox virus. Three cases are found in Kerala and one case is found in New Delhi recently.

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